THE PITCHERSDODGERS RHP BRANDON McCARTHY (6-3, 3.25 ERA)Vs. Royals: 3-2, 4.05 ERAAt Dodger Stadium: 8-2, 3.87 ERAHates to face: Alex Gordon, 6 for 14 (.429), 1 double Newsroom GuidelinesNews TipsContact UsReport an Error ROYALS at DODGERSWhen: Saturday, 4:15 p.m.Where: Dodger StadiumTV: Fox/11 Loves to face: Salvador Perez, 0 for 6ROYALS RHP IAN KENNEDY (3-6, 4.44 ERA)Vs. Dodgers: 5-9, 4.31 ERAAt Dodger Stadium: 2-5, 3.75 ERAHates to face: Justin Turner, 8 for 16 (.500), 4 doublesLoves to face: Yasiel Puig, 8 for 24 (.167), 8 strikeouts— Bill Plunkett
Local eye surgeon goes on medal run during the summer at Canadian Masters Kayaking Regatta in Regina
By Bruce Fuhr,The Nelson Daily SportsLocal eye surgeon, Dr. Neville Maytom has never attended the Canadian Masters Kayaking Regatta.After filling his vehicle with medals for the long ride home from Regina, Saskatchewan, the rest of the field may not want the Nelson paddler to return.The good doctor by day and kayak enthusiast by, well almost most of the time when he’s not working, earned two Canadian Masters titles during the championships on Wascana Lake in August.“I’ve never been to the Canadian Masters before so I really didn’t know what to expect,” Maytom told The Nelson Daily from his home on the North Shore.“I only went because friends I have in Vancouver asked me to come. They wanted to get as many B.C. paddlers there to have a chance at winning the overall title so I joined a team from Burnaby for the event.” It really didn’t take the 50-plus kayaker long to become a fan favourite with his new Lower Mainland teammates.Maytom, overcoming rough, choppy water conditions, was part of the gold medal team in the 500-meter K2 (two-man) with teammate Kurt Foellmer and 500 meter K4 (four-man) 55-59 age division. He added three silver medals, including a second-place finish in the prestigious 500-meter K1 (singles).Maytom finished a measly two seconds behind previous national sprint champion, Nick Natchev from Pointe Claire, Quebec. Third place went to Keith Major of Peachland.“We raced in heats and (Natchev) was in the other heat,” said Maytom, who thrives on hopping into his boat for a paddle in front of his house on Kootenay Lake. “I really wished we were in the same heat because it would have been nice to see how I’d do against him (head to head).”The Canadian Masters Regatta has been staged every year since 1986.The majority of the field, this year boasting more than 200 participants, hail from Eastern Canada known as the “heartland” of sprint kayaking.“The regatta helps to promote long-term health benefits, camaraderie and great memories of an event well worth attending,” explained Maytom, who made the trip to Regina with his wife.Maytom, a four-time World Masters Kayaking Champ, won the only other race he attended this season on Lake Okanagan.He teamed up with a four other friends to capturing the 100 kilometer Lake Okanagan Relay. The race starts in Vernon and ends in Penticton. Each person paddles 20 kilometers. Team Maytom won by 20 minutes.Maytom said the Masters event in 2011 is slated to be in Eastern Canada so the likelihood of attending appears remote.Which is good news to the rest of the [email protected]
Will the Spaniards be noted in history books as the ones who falsified neo-Darwinism? Not likely; no one experiment would bring down a biological paradigm with such international and historical momentum behind it. Nevertheless, looking at the results and conclusions of experiments by three evolutionary biologists at the Institut Cavanilles de Biodiversitat i Biologia Evolutiva, Universitat de Valencia in Spain, published in PNAS this week,1 it would be hard to find any support for the central tenets of neo-Darwinian theory: namely, that evolutionary adaptations arise by natural selection acting on beneficial mutations. Instead, this paper shows experimental evidence that it doesn’t work. Neo-Darwinism, also termed the modern synthesis of evolutionary biology, was formulated in the 1940s to rescue Darwin’s views on natural selection from growing theoretical problems (see 07/02/2004 headline). It incorporated the necessity of genetic mutations to provide the raw material for variation on which natural selection acts. This revision was necessary when the rediscovery of Mendel’s laws of inheritance ruled out ideas of blending inheritance, showing instead that inherited characters were based on discrete entities (genes) that were passed on unaltered to the offspring. To test neo-Darwinian evolution in a microcosm, Rafael Sanjuán, Andrés Moya, and Santiago F. Elena worked with RNA viruses: organisms with a small, compact genomes that should respond quickly and noticeably to mutations. The team was looking for epistatic interactions: i.e., the effects of multiple independent (non-allelic) mutations on each other, rather than the effects of single mutations alone. These interactions can be antagonistic or synergistic: they can work against one another or with one another. Epistasis is defined as “any interaction of nonallelic genes, especially the suppression by one gene of the effect of a nonallelic gene.” Of note in this paper are the opening lines in the abstract that tell how rarely this important concept has been studied before (read: never):The tendency for genetic architectures to exhibit epistasis among mutations plays a central role in the modern synthesis of evolutionary biology and in theoretical descriptions of many evolutionary processes. Nevertheless, few studies unquestionably show whether, and how, mutations typically interact. Beneficial mutations are especially difficult to identify because of their scarcity. Consequently, epistasis among pairs of this important class of mutations has, to our knowledge, never before been explored.Let’s picture a 2×2 grid. On the left side, label the rows “beneficial” and “deleterious.” On the top, label the columns “synergistic” and “antagonistic.” Now put two dots in each box, with the dots representing mutations that will interact with one another. Quiz question: which box represents the only hope for evolutionary advancement? Well, the bottom and right boxes are clearly not any help. If the mutations are both deleterious and both antagonistic, at least they might turn each other off to stop the damage, like two criminals fighting each other instead of you. If the mutations are both deleterious but synergistic, they will multiply each other’s damage, like two criminals ganging up on you. If they are both beneficial but antagonistic, that won’t help, either, because it would be like two guardian angels having a squabble instead of helping you. In short, neo-Darwinism’s only hope is to find mutations in the top left box: two good mutations that work synergistically, increasing your “fitness” in the evolutionary world of competition. So how did the experiments go in the lab? They performed two classes of experiments to measure the effects of epistasis on mutations. Continuing with the abstract, here is what they found:Interactions among genome components should be of special relevance in compacted genomes such as those of RNA viruses. To tackle these issues, we first generated 47 genotypes of vesicular stomatitis virus carrying pairs of nucleotide substitution mutations whose separated and combined deleterious effects on fitness were determined. Several pairs exhibited significant interactions for fitness, including antagonistic and synergistic epistasis. Synthetic lethals represented 50% of the latter. In a second set of experiments, 15 genotypes carrying pairs of beneficial mutations were also created. In this case, all significant interactions were antagonistic. Our results show that the architecture of the fitness depends on complex interactions among genome components.In other words, none of their pairs of mutations occupied the necessary box labeled “beneficial and synergistic.” Half of the synergistic (working-together) actions they measured were “synthetic lethals” – which is like the two criminals both shooting the victim simultaneously. The other 50% maybe didn’t kill the organisms but still decreased fitness overall. The second experiment was all the more depressing: given two beneficial mutations in the same organism, all significant interactions were antagonistic. This means the guardian angels were preventing each other from helping. It recalls another paper in PNAS in March 2003 (see 03/17/2003 headline) that took into account indirect genetic effects, noting that increases in fitness do not act in isolation; they often counteract one another, creating “slippage on the treadmill.” In the current paper, the researchers found that beneficial mutations do not add up, even in the best of circumstances. Neo-Darwinian theory assumes that beneficial mutations act independently, but the team found that of the eight actual best-case scenarios (two beneficial mutations working antagonistically, since none worked synergistically) over half decreased the total fitness of the result from what would be expected if the beneficial mutations acted alone. They called this “decompensatory epistasis” if you need a new phrase to impress your friends at the water cooler. What does this mean to neo-Darwinian theory? “Indeed, when epistasis is decompensatory, both beneficial alleles involved in the interaction cannot spread to fixation in the population, because the double mutant is less fit than each single mutant.” This drastically undercuts any hope for evolutionary progress. Beneficial mutations are “scarce” to begin with, but more is not better – it’s worse. Like adding hot sauce to ice cream, the benefits of each counteract one another when combined. “As a consequence,” they continue, describing the only hope left, “lineages bearing alternative beneficial mutations should compete with each other on their way to fixation and, as a consequence of asexuality and clonal interference, only the best competitor will eventually become fixed in the population.” That is, only one beneficial mutation can become fixed at a time, even in the best case scenario. The discussion of results in the paper by Sanjuán et al. hammers neo-Darwinian theory with additional gentle, but effective, blows. First, they restate the basic finding: “Among pairs of deleterious mutations, although both synergistic and antagonistic epistases have been detected, interactions were predominantly antagonistic, such that their combined effect is significantly smaller than expected under a multiplicative model.” And in the best-case scenario of artificially-induced beneficial mutations, “antagonistic epistasis represents the most abundant type of interaction among beneficial mutations, with several cases showing decompensatory epistasis.” How should these experiments impact evolutionary theory, including the “queen of evolutionary problems,” the origin of sex? (see 04/14/2003 headline). Neo-Darwinists may well wish to run and hide:The results reported here have two important implications for theories seeking explanations for the evolutionary advantage of recombination and sexual reproduction. First, according to the Fisher�Muller argument, sex and recombination are advantageous because they combine into a common genotype beneficial mutations that arose in different ones, speeding up the rate of adaptation. However, if the genetic architecture of RNA viruses determines that, in general, antagonistic epistasis and, in particular, decompensatory epistasis among beneficial mutations is the norm, then recombination would not necessarily imply a benefit in terms of adaptive evolution. Second, sex might still be beneficial for RNA viruses as an efficient mechanism for purging deleterious mutations. However, according with the Mutational Deterministic Hypothesis [i.e., the suggestion that sex enables a population to purge deleterious mutations from the genome], if this is the case, an excess of synergistic epistasis among deleterious mutations is required to compensate the 2-fold advantage of clonal reproduction [i.e., asexual reproduction]. Our first data set shows that synergistic interactions among random mutations are neither stronger nor more common than antagonistic interactions. Indeed, the existence of variability among loci in the sign and strength of epistasis, and especially the dominance of antagonistic epistasis, decreases the parameter space over which sex may evolve.Since the parameter space was small to begin with, their words sound euphemistic, as if to cheer up a prisoner facing a hanging at dawn that maybe someone will find an alibi: “Like who? Like what?” the prisoner asks. “I dunno; just supposin’,” the friend replies. How sex may evolve: that’s somebody else’s problem. Also, they note, their results “impose a strong burden” on the “often invoked limitless adaptability of RNA viruses.” Citing another paper, they quote, “RNA viruses might be more at the mercy of their mutation rates than we think.” If decompensatory epistasis and antagonistic interactions are the general rules for mutations in all organisms, any hope for variability and adaptability due to mutation and selection has been severely limited, if not falsified, by these experiments. On the contrary, they say their experiments demonstrate a mechanism for stability of the genome: “In this sense, because it involves masking the interaction among deleterious alleles, antagonistic epistasis might be seen as a sort of genetic mutational robustness.” (See 09/22/2004 headline on robustness as a design constraint in the living cell.) In conclusion, they caution evolutionary modelers to realize that they can no longer merely assume fitness gains (if any) add up. Mercifully, they use the words hint and suggest: “Finally, we would like to hint that the above findings prompt the necessity of considering nonmultiplicative fitness effects in mathematical descriptions of viral evolution.” Indeed, “the results we present here suggest that more realistic models must incorporate variance in the type and strength of epistasis among mutations.” But did they themselves find any synergistic, beneficial epistatic effects by experiment? None. Maybe neo-Darwinism is like the businessman who lost money on every sale but thought he could make it up in volume.1Rafael Sanjuán, Andrés Moya, and Santiago F. Elena, “Evolution: The contribution of epistasis to the architecture of fitness in an RNA virus,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, 10.1073/pnas.0404125101, Published online before print October 18, 2004.Any scientific hypothesis must be testable and subject to falsification by experiment. It is not enough to tell just-so stories, and describe things in glittering generalities with armchair scenarios. Neo-Darwinian theory, the idea that natural selection acting on “scarce” beneficial mutations can produce all the diversity of life, from diving cormorants to catapulting chameleon tongues to sponge fiber optics to high-tech fruit fly aircraft to supersonic high-jumping froghoppers to efficient penguin, whale and dolphin flippers to fish physics students to glass-sculpturing diatoms to self-propelled motors, must be testable if it is to be declared scientific. So there. These scientists finally put neo-Darwinism to the test in a microcosm that should have shown, if the principles were correct, a clear case of fitness increasing as a result of natural selection acting on beneficial mutations. It failed. It failed miserably. Not only were no instances of synergistic beneficial mutations detected, the beneficial mutations that were artificially inserted worked against each other! Neo-Darwinism is falsified! And it was falsified not by creationists, but by evolutionary biologists working in the lab at an institute for the study of biological evolution! Now all we need to do is get the word out. Stop the propaganda machine, stop the NCSE and ACLU threats at the school boards, stop the PBS NOVA programs and the media spin doctors. Rearrange the museums, gather up the pro-Darwin displays and national park signs and toss them, along with neo-Darwinian theory itself, and by implication all of Charlie’s baggage that was already obsolete before 1940, onto the dumpster of discredited ideas. Darwin’s Century is now a mere footnote of history, an unfortunate detour that killed 100 million people, but at least now we know better.(Visited 100 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0
TagsTransfersAbout the authorCarlos VolcanoShare the loveHave your say WOW! Vidal delivers home truths to Barcelona pal Dembeleby Carlos Volcano7 days agoSend to a friendShare the loveArturo Vidal insists Barcelona must keep hold of Ousmane Dembele.Despite his problems off the pitch, Vidal says the France attacker has world class potential.He told L’Equipe: “Above all, Ousmane is a footballer with a crazy talent. When he reaches maturity, he will be an important player for Barça and the France team. “But, clearly, he needs to mature. To listen to his body, to be better prepared to avoid injuries. In football, if you want to be the best, you have to get up, eat and go to bed thinking football. And then, do not rest on your achievements. “Football evolves so fast, you have to constantly innovate, discover other ways to surprise the opponent, be curious … You can not bet everything on your talent. I think Ousmane will realise at some point that he has to do more.”
PARIS — The Latest on anti-government protests in France (all times local):11:55 a.m.A survey suggests the “yellow vest” protests in France have dealt a significant blow to business activity in the country’s services sector, which includes tourism and retail.The so-called purchasing managers’ index, which measures activity in various parts of an economy, fell to 49.6 points in December for France’s services sector. That is down sharply from November’s 55.1 points. The index, published Friday by data firm IHS Markit, is on a 100-point scale, with the 50 mark separating expansion from contraction.Eliot Kerr, economist at IHS Markit, said the data points to “an outright contraction in France’s private sector for the first time in two-and-a-half years, following the protests which have swept through the country in recent weeks.”The “yellow vest” protests began as demonstrations against a fuel tax and have expanded into sometimes violent marches across the country to protest the policies of President Emmanuel Macron.___9:15 a.m.Anticipating a fifth straight weekend of violent protests, Paris’ police chief says armoured vehicles and thousands of officers will be deployed again in the French capital on Saturday.Michel Delpuech told RTL radio on Friday security services intend to deploy the same numbers and strength as last weekend, with about 8,000 officers and 14 armoured vehicles again in Paris.Delpuech said the biggest difference will be the deployment of more groups of patrol officers to catch vandals who roamed streets around the Champs Elysees last weekend, causing damage and pillaging.A sixth “yellow vest” protester was killed this week, hit by a truck at a protest roadblock. Despite calls from authorities urging protesters to stop the protests, the movement rocking the country has showed no signs of abating.The Associated Press
HONOLULU — The USS Bowfin Submarine Museum and Park is undergoing a $20 million revitalization and expansion project to update its Pearl Harbor campus.The Honolulu Star-Advertiser reports officials broke ground Monday on the project that includes adding new exhibits and about 3,000 square feet (279 square meters) of space.The facility will be named the Pacific Fleet Submarine Museum when the project is completed in April 2020.Portions of the campus will be closed during construction, but its centerpiece World War II submarine will remain open.The campus is next to the USS Arizona Memorial visitors’ centre operated by the National Park Service.The submarine museum and other non-profit organizations that operate historic sites at Pearl Harbor are providing financial support to keep the centre open during the U.S. government shutdown.___Information from: Honolulu Star-Advertiser, http://www.staradvertiser.comThe Associated Press
Mumbai: Ajay Devgn on Tuesday refrained from commenting on the #MeToo allegations against his “De De Pyaar De” co-star Alok Nath. Writer Vinta Nanda had accused Nath of rape last year. When producer Luv Ranjan was asked to comment on the same, Ajay intervened saying, “This is not the right place to talk about it.” “And jinki aap baat kar rahe hai woh film uske pehle complete hui (the film was completed before the allegations surfaced against the concerned person) Ajay was talking on the sidelines of the trailer launch of his film “De De Pyaar De”. The trailer was launched on the occasion of Ajay’s 50th birthday. The film, also featuring Tabu and Rakul Preet Singh, is directed by Akiv Ali. It releases on May 17.
“At first it was hard to adjust (to college), but now I’m cool,” Miller said. “Now I’m just getting the hang of it.” Defensive back Jeremy Cash (Plantation High School, Plantation, Fla.), defensive tackle Joel Hale (Center Grove High School, Greenwood, Ind.), tight end Jeff Heuerman (Barron Collier High School, Naples, Fla.) and linebacker Ryan Shazier (Plantation High School, Plantation, Fla.) also enrolled early. With starting quarterback Terrelle Pryor suspended for the first five games of 2011, Miller will compete for Pryor’s spot with Joe Bauserman, who will be a senior, and Taylor Graham, Ken Guiton and Justin Siems, who will be sophomores. “It’s an opportunity to put in the work,” Miller said, “and see who wins out.” Tressel emphasized the amount of repetitions each quarterback will receive in practice this year. “These guys are going to get good reps,” he said. “(We’ll see) the evolution of who steps to the front. There’s going to be days where one person does, and there’s going to be days when another doesn’t.” Defensive end Steve Miller (McKinley Senior High School, Canton, Ohio) rounds out the five-star recruits and is the No. 9-ranked defensive end, according to Scout.com. He is one of 13 defensive signees. Tressel said the 2011 class had good balance on both sides of the ball. “What we try to do every year is just get a little bit of everything so that, within your classes, you have a few of every position,” he said. “Therefore, when you look at the total roster, you’ve got the kind of depth and age variance within positions.” But the Buckeyes did not land all the high school players they coveted. Offensive lineman Aundrey Walker (Glenville High School, Cleveland), a four-star recruit according to Scout.com, committed to Southern California and is widely regarded as the top offensive line recruit in Ohio. Overall, Scout.com ranks the Buckeyes’ class No. 3 in the nation; ESPN ranks it No. 7; and Rivals.com ranks it No. 10. Nebraska and Michigan also appeared in the top 25. Nebraska is ranked No. 14 on ESPN, No. 15 on Rivals.com and No. 23 on Scout.com. Michigan is ranked No. 21 on Rivals.com. Zack Meisel contributed to this story. On the first day high school football recruits could sign with their prospective universities, Ohio State announced the signing of 23 new Buckeyes for its 2011 class. Coach Jim Tressel is satisfied with how the recruiting class rounded out, he said at a press conference Wednesday. “When you get into the last two weeks of January and you get a good finish, you feel good about that,” he said. “I liked the beginning, and I loved the end.” Of the 23 signees, three are listed as five-star recruits on Scout.com. Linebacker Curtis Grant (Hermitage High School, Richmond, Va.) committed Wednesday afternoon to play for Tressel’s squad. The 6-foot-3, 215-pound Grant is the top outside linebacker in the country, according to Scout.com. Another five-star recruit is quarterback Braxton Miller (Wayne High School, Huber Heights, Ohio). The 6-2, 185-pound Miller is the No. 2-ranked quarterback in the nation, according to Scout.com. However, Rivals.com considers Miller a four-star recruit. Miller is one of 13 recruits from Ohio, and one of five players who enrolled early at OSU for Winter Quarter 2011.
Steve Stricker has a spot in the final pairing Sunday, after shooting a 3-under-par 69 on Saturday at the Memorial Tournament. Stricker is 12-under-par in the tournament, three strokes ahead of his nearest competitor. Stricker, looking to capture his 10th PGA Tour victory, said to win the Memorial would rank with some of his greatest wins. “It’s a great tournament,” Stricker said. “(Jack Nicklaus) is the greatest player of all time, and to win his tournament would be pretty special.” Paired with Stricker for the final day of play is Jonathan Byrd, who shot a 3-under-par 69 to put himself at 9-under-par for the tournament. “Anytime you get in the final group on Sunday, you’ve done a great job,” Byrd said. “Today I played well all day.” Byrd said playing in the final group on a Sunday is a fun environment and that the added attention and pressure help his game. “I think the hardest environment to play in is when there’s like two people out there,” Byrd said. “When there’s a ton of people you just block everybody out.” Matt Kuchar will join Brandt Jobe on Sunday as the second-to-last group to tee off. Kuchar finished his day with a 4-under-par 68, putting him four shots off the lead. He said looking at the leaderboard was a little disheartening. “I was playing some great golf and finally got a chance to look at the leaderboard,” Kuchar said. “Stricker was matching me shot for shot out there.” Phil Mickelson, who finished the day with an even-par 72, said that, despite being 10 shots off the lead, he is pretty happy with many aspects of his game. “I’m actually pretty pleased with a lot of areas that I feel like I’ve been doing well,” he said. “But the one area that I’m identifying I’ll spend a little time now on is putting.” Stricker and Kuchar appeared unstoppable on the front nine on Saturday. Stricker got off to a strong start with an eagle on the second hole, and another eagle on the fifth hole. He finished the front nine shooting a 5-under-par 31. “It was a great start,” Stricker said. “Holing one out at the second hole and then making another eagle at No. 5.” Kuchar also shot a 5-under-par 31 on the front nine, and had seven birdies in nine holes. He said it would be tough for anyone to catch Stricker on Sunday. “Strick has got it all,” Kuchar said. “It’s going to take a low number for anyone to knock Steve Stricker tomorrow to have a chance.” Play begins at 8 a.m. Sunday. Stricker and Byrd will tee off at 1:35 p.m.
Former Real Madrid midfielder Christian Karembeu believes that his former club are the clear favourites to retain their Champions League title for a third consecutive seasonZinedine Zidane’s side have had a rather humbling domestic season, after their success last season, with Real currently 15 points behind Barcelona in La Liga and they were left stunned when Leganes knocked them out of the quarter-finals of the Copa del Rey.But Karembeu, who won the Champions League twice in his time at the club, is confident that they can win the competition this season against the likes of Barcelona, Manchester City and Bayern Munich.“Don’t even ask the question,” the former Madrid midfielder told Omnisport, according to SportsKeeda.“Only Real can win it [the Champions League], that’s it.“In Kiev, who’s going to play against Real, this I don’t know. Real will be in Kiev however, yes.”Opinion: Neymar will earn respect back from the PSG fans Tomás Pavel Ibarra Meda – September 14, 2019 After completing his incredible return to Parc des Princes, we predict that Neymar will earn the respect back from PSG supporters.The situation between Neymar…Karembeu also voiced his support for Zidane and is full of optimism about his potential at the Santiago Bernabeu: “He [Zidane] was an amazing player and he will become an amazing coach,” he added. “He’s doing it already.”The former French international is also backing Didier Deschamps to lead France to glory in the World Cup: “France will win because 20 years ago we did it,” he added. “Didier Deschamps is experienced and knows his group.“They played a final of a European Championship at home.“He saw some interesting performances. It was a successful competition. He has to bounce back.”Karembeu spent three season at Real from between 1997 and 2000. As well as winning the Champions League twice, the now 47 year-old also won the Intercontinental Cup in 1998.