Former IPL commissioner Lalit Modi is learnt to have told the Enforcement Directorate (ED) that he faces a threat to life and cannot return to India.In a letter to ED Assistant Director D.K. Sinha on October 12, available with Headlines Today, Modi said he had received an email from an unknown source threatening him with dire consequences.The letter said the Mumbai Police had intercepted communication that indicated that the underworld had plans to assassinate Modi.Modi said he had been advised to stay away from India as long as the threat remained.Modi’s lawyers have responded to the ED’s summons, attaching the detailed correspondence between him and the police
Don’t miss out on the latest news and information. Sports Related Videospowered by AdSparcRead Next Two-day strike in Bicol fails to cripple transport Trending Articles PLAY LIST 00:50Trending Articles00:50Trending Articles00:50Trending Articles02:42PH underwater hockey team aims to make waves in SEA Games01:44Philippines marks anniversary of massacre with calls for justice01:19Fire erupts in Barangay Tatalon in Quezon City01:07Trump talks impeachment while meeting NCAA athletes02:49World-class track facilities installed at NCC for SEA Games02:11Trump awards medals to Jon Voight, Alison Krauss Ethel Booba twits Mocha over 2 toilets in one cubicle at SEA Games venue Samahang Basketbol ng Pilipinas president Al Panlilio submitted the national team’s itinerary before the PBA Board on Thursday at the league’s office in Libis, Quezon City.Gilas will play in a pocket tournament that features World Cup-bound teams Spain, the world’s no.2 team, and Ivory Coast, the 64th team in the World, and also world no. 82 Congo.FEATURED STORIESSPORTSPrivate companies step in to help SEA Games hostingSPORTSPalace wants Cayetano’s PHISGOC Foundation probed over corruption chargesSPORTSSingapore latest to raise issue on SEA Games food, logisticsThe Philippines are no.31 in the world and is the fourth-ranked country in the Fiba Asia region.Gilas’ trip to Spain, though, is still being finalized since it will follow the rescheduling of the PBA Commissioner’s Cup. LATEST STORIES Cayetano: Senate, Drilon to be blamed for SEA Games mess Catholic schools seek legislated pay hike, too ‘Rebel attack’ no cause for concern-PNP, AFP MOST READ View comments Private companies step in to help SEA Games hosting PDEA chief backs Robredo in revealing ‘discoveries’ on drug war The SBP initially eyed a training camp either in Spain or Russia, but they chose to go with the peninsular country’s offer since the Russian Basketball Federation could only bid one tune-up game.“It fell through [the Russian training camp] since it’s only one game that they are committing to us,” said Panlilio.The Fiba World Cup is set from August 31 to Sept. 15 in Foshan, China.ADVERTISEMENT MANILA, Philippines—Gilas Pilipinas is set for a training camp in Spain ahead of the 2019 Fiba World Cup in China.ADVERTISEMENT Analysis: Why the Warriors will win the NBA Finals DA eyes importing ‘galunggong’ anew
aitaAll India Tennis Associationdavis cupIndia First Published: August 22, 2019, 8:56 PM IST Get the best of News18 delivered to your inbox – subscribe to News18 Daybreak. Follow News18.com on Twitter, Instagram, Facebook, Telegram, TikTok and on YouTube, and stay in the know with what’s happening in the world around you – in real time. New Delhi: India’s Davis Cup match against Pakistan was on Thursday postponed to November after a security review by the International Tennis Federation.The tie was to be held in Islamabad on September 14-15. The ITF said it was postponing the tie under “exceptional circumstance”.”Following an in-depth security review of the current situation in Pakistan by independent expert security advisors, the Davis Cup Committee has taken the decision to postpone the Davis Cup Asia/Oceania Group I tie between Pakistan and India in Islamabad, due to be played on 14-15 September,” the ITF said in the statement.”The Committee concluded that this is an exceptional circumstance while the first priority of the ITF is the safety and security of athletes, officials and spectators,” it added.The ITF said the tie has been rescheduled for November, with the exact dates to be confirmed by the Committee no later than September 9.”The ITF will continue to monitor the situation in Pakistan and the Davis Cup Committee will re-convene to re-examine the security situation in advance of the tie,” the world body said.
Brazil will field 462 participants at next month’s Rio Olympics, its largest ever Games squad, local officials have said.The number could increase, pending wildcard entries for athletics and changes to the tennis draw, the Brazilian Olympic Committee said on Monday, reports Xinhua.The squad includes 253 men and 209 women, in addition to 344 coaches, medical staff and team officials.Previously, the largest Brazilian squad at the Olympics was 277 at the Beijing Games in 2008. At the 2012 London Olympics, Brazil fielded 259 sportspersons.Track and field will have the largest number of Brazilian competitors at 67, followed by football (36) and swimming (33).Members of the host nation’s squad will begin arriving at the athletes’ village next Sunday (June 24). (Also read: Rio Olympics: Salman Khan, AR Rahman highlight IOA’s contingent send-off)Women’s hockey is the only event in which Brazil will not field a team, due to the country’s inability to meet minimum criteria for the sport.
About the authorCarlos VolcanoShare the loveHave your say INSIDER: Zidane wants Mendy as Real Madrid first-choiceby Carlos Volcanoa month agoSend to a friendShare the loveReal Madrid coach Zinedine Zidane is eager for Ferland Mendy to establish himself.The France left-back was signed this summer from Lyon and is battling Marcelo for a place in Zidane’s starting XI.And Okdiario’s chief pundit Eduardo Inda, speaking on El Chiringuito, revealed: “Mendy is a player that I think is the great success of the signings. “The idea that Zidane has is that he is the starting left side, the first-choice in all the lineups.”Physically, he is out-of-the-box and he is going to be a star in Madrid. He (Zidane) likes him better than Marcelo right now.”
The Complete Guide for Learning How to Mow a Lawn We are huge fans of prints here at The Manual. Who doesn’t love a great plaid blazer or go-to striped shirt? With the weather getting colder and holidays on the horizon, we’ve been experimenting with our layers, mixing some of our favorite prints for a look that really catches the eye. But there are some DOs and DON’Ts to print on print you should know about before trying it at home. Check out our handy guide below to get the look right and have your most handsome season yet.DO mind a color scheme. Just like you would with any element of a great outfit, color matching is key. If you dressed in an orange and blue plaid shirt under a red and purple striped blazer, you’re obviously going to look crazy. For example, even though the dark blue of this Club Monaco Slim-Fit Dot Dress Shirt is deeper than the cool hue of the Striped Lambswool Maison Kitsuné sweater, they are similar enough to complement each other when paired together. Plus, we love the dot stripe combination because it’s youthful and not too serious.DON’T mix more than two different prints. So you want to add a little extra style to your look by wearing more than two patterned pieces at once. Awesome, but make sure you stick to no more than two prints. For example, if you want to get playful with your tie (we love the classically preppy Vineyard Vines Whale print) keep your shirt and socks traditional. A navy suit will pack a serious punch when paired with a classic checked shirt, checked socks (navy, please) and tie in your pattern of choice.DO use accessories to get the look. Take it from an expert, there’s nothing sexier than a great patterned suit on a man. It’s dapper, classic and will make the ladies flock faster than a sample sale. Adding a scarf or pocket square to the look will take it to the next level of stylish. The Bonobos Livingston Suit is a great starting canvas; add a rich teal pocket square from The Tie Bar, and you’ll really be swaggin.DON’T believe what you heard about plaids and stripes. Whoever said you can’t pair plaids with stripes was seriously so wrong (just like wearing white after Labor Day, we do what we want!). He or she probably had good intentions, but it all comes back around to the rules we spoke about here. Make sure they are similar in size because you don’t want a thick stripe with a teeny tiny plaid. Keep the color scheme complementary and you will be the most handsome man in the room.Header image via Dapper Lou When to Take Your Suit in for a Cleaning, According to the Experts Session Wines Are Your Best Easy-Drinking Buddies Editors’ Recommendations The Best Father and Son Matching Outfits The Most Unique Collaboration Beers in the U.S.
A 45-year-old man was medevaced from the 102,926 dwt tanker Eagle Texas south of Sabine, Texas, on June 12.According to the US Coast Guard, the captain of the vessel sent a medevac request as the crewman was reportedly suffering from symptoms of a cardiac arrest.At the time, the tanker was some 27 miles south of Sabine.An Air Station Houston MH-65 Dolphin helicopter aircrew arrived on scene and transported the crewmember to St. Elizabeth Hospital in Beaumont, Texas.The mariner was reported in stable condition.
All prosecution and administrative policies of the Nova ScotiaPublic Prosecution Service are now available on the service’swebsite. “Posting our Crown Attorney Manual on the website gives thepublic much easier access to a statement of the principles whichunderlie the decisions made in criminal cases,” said MartinHerschorn, director of Public Prosecutions. “While ourprosecutorial and administrative policies have always been publicinformation, the three-inch stack of paper in a three-ring bindermade dissemination a little cumbersome.” Prosecutorial policies range from core policies — the decisionto prosecute; resolution discussions and agreements; stayingproceedings and recommending proceedings; disclosure – toparticular policies on such offences as drinking and driving,home invasions and spousal/partner violence. Administrativepolicies cover a wide range of topics including conflict ofinterest, review board hearings and witness fees. “Now, any member of the public can go to our website and browseour policy manual,” said Mr. Herschorn. “It also makes it easierfor our own Crown attorneys to have the policy manual onlinewhere it can be easily referenced. And updating it is a breeze.” Just 18 months ago, the Nova Scotia Public Prosecution Servicebecame a Canadian leader in prosecutorial policy when it unveiledits newly revamped Crown Attorney Manual. All policies anddirectives had undergone a complete review. While many policieshad been revised or strengthened, others were added, includingthe core prosecutorial discretion policies. At the time, Attorney General Michael Baker said the manualdefines and guides the prosecutorial process in Nova Scotia withgreater precision than ever. He said the manual is indicative of”steps taken to ensure the Nova Scotia Public Prosecution Serviceis first-rate.” The policy manual can be viewed at www.gov.ns.ca/pps/ . PUBLIC PROSECUTION SERVICE–Public Prosecution Policies NowOnline
WASHINGTON – For the first time in 30 years, the U.S. Marine Corps will air an ad during the Super Bowl, using an online-only spot Sunday to target a young, tough, tech-savvy audience for potential recruits looking for a challenge.The high-powered, battle-heavy, 30-second ad shows Marines deploying from ships in amphibious vehicles, dropping bombs from aircraft and hurling a shoulder-launched drone into the air.“It’s not just the ships, the armour or the aircraft. It’s something more. It’s the will to fight and determination to win found inside each and every Marine that answers a nation’s call,” the announcer says, as the camera follows a squad of Marines storming off helicopters into a mock firefight while explosions erupt around them.The goal, said Maj. Gen. Paul Kennedy, head of the Marine Corps Recruiting Command, is to reach young men and women who have faced and conquered challenges in their life, probably played physical sports such as wrestling or rugby, and have a bit of that fighting spirit.Network television viewers of the game won’t see the Marine spot. But those watching through online streaming services — which charge a fraction of the advertising price — will see it twice.“I’m not trying to enlist fathers or mothers, I’m trying to enlist 18- to 24-year-olds,” said Kennedy. “And they tend to be cord cutters. They take in entertainment differently and they tend to do it on a device rather than a television.”The Marine Corps would not provide the exact cost because the specific pricing is proprietary. But the online ad represents a savings of nearly 85 per cent over the broadcast price. Thirty-second slots are going for more than $5 million for broadcast airtime alone. And the online ad — which can be viewed on www.marines.com — is expected to reach more than 20 million viewers.As the military services struggle to meet recruitment goals in these times of low unemployment, they are competing for many of the same young people — physically fit high school graduates who can score 50 or higher on the military’s aptitude test.The Marine Corps is on target to meet its recruitment goal of about 38,000 for the budget year ending Sept. 30. But recruiters have historically found that the months of February through May are the toughest for finding new enlistments. By this time, many high school seniors have decided what they will do or what college they will attend.So Kennedy is hoping the ad will reach some who may still be open to serving in the Marine Corps. Targeting the streaming broadcast has now become a more effective option as viewership online grows, he said, and is the best way to reach more young people while spending less money.“I don’t have unlimited funds,” he said. “And this is probably the most-watched event, as we move into the toughest months of recruiting.”The visuals in the ad, he said, go to the heart of what Marines do, deliberately focusing on the fight rather than some of the intangibles such as the potential for paid college tuition, bonuses or other incentives. The images are designed to attract people who are tough and resilient — key words the Marines use repeatedly to describe the force.The battle scenes were filmed on the West Coast with Marines participating in a military exercise called Dawn Blitz in order to show more realistic scenarios. The ad also shows Marines deployed on the USS Essex, an amphibious assault ship, which was off the California coast for training, to mimic a deployment near the shores of an adversary.“This ad talks to the fighting spirit of young people that have come up through high school,” Kennedy said. “We want young, tough, smart warriors that want to continue to seek challenges, and we’re seeking them from men and women from all walks of life.”
Washington DC: A steady supply of beer may have helped keep the Wari empire in Peru running for 500 years, eventually giving rise to the Incas, a study has found. At its height, the Wari empire covered an area the size of the Eastern seaboard of the US from New York City to Jacksonville. It lasted from 600 to 1100 AD, before eventually giving rise to the Inca. Archaeologists are studying remnants of the Wari culture to see what kept it ticking. Also Read – Saudi Crown Prince ‘snubbed’ Pak PM, recalled jet from US”This study helps us understand how beer fed the creation of complex political organisations,” said Ryan Williams, an associate curator at the Field Museum in the US. “We were able to apply new technologies to capture information about how ancient beer was produced and what it meant to societies in the past,” said Williams, lead author of the study published in the journal Sustainability. Nearly twenty years ago, the team discovered an ancient Wari brewery in Cerro Baul in the mountains of southern Peru. Also Read – Record number of 35 candidates in fray for SL Presidential polls”It was like a microbrewery in some respects. It was a production house, but the brewhouses and taverns would have been right next door,” said Williams. Since the beer they brewed, a light, sour beverage called chicha, was only good for about a week after being made, it was not shipped offsite — people had to come to festivals at Cerro Baul to drink it. These festivals were important to Wari society — between one and two hundred local political elites would attend, and they would drink chicha from three-foot-tall ceramic vessels decorated to look like Wari gods and leaders. “People would have come into this site, in these festive moments, in order to recreate and reaffirm their affiliation with these Wari lords and maybe bring tribute and pledge loyalty to the Wari state,” Williams said in a statement. In short, beer helped keep the empire together, researchers said. To learn more about the beer that played such an important role in Wari society, researchers analysed pieces of ceramic beer vessels from Cerro Baul. They used several techniques, including one that involved shooting a laser at a shard of a beer vessel to remove a tiny bit of material, and then heating that dust to the temperature of the surface of the Sun to break down the molecules that make it up. From there, the researchers were able to tell what atomic elements make up the sample, and how many — information that told researchers exactly where the clay came from and what the beer was made of. To check that the ingredients in chicha could indeed be transferred to the brewing vessels, the researchers worked with Peruvian brewers to recreate the brewing process.
ANCHORAGE, Alaska — A man rescued from a drifting sheet of floating ice in northwest Alaska says he had to jump from floe to floe as the ice started breaking into smaller pieces.The Anchorage Daily News reports Phillip Rode, John Culp Jr. and James Gibson were rescued by a helicopter Sunday after they became stranded miles off the coast of Nome.Rode says the group was recovering gold mining equipment from an ice shelf that was beginning to detach from a beach.The ice broke loose as they were moving equipment, but they didn’t immediately realize they had drifted into the Bering Sea.Rode says the ice started cracking under them, and the floes became farther apart.He says he ended up on an ice floe no bigger than a Volkswagen Beetle.___Information from: Anchorage Daily News, http://www.adn.comThe Associated Press
From April 7-28 there is a water drinking challenge happening called Water You Drinking? This challenge is being launched on World Health Day with the goal of increasing awareness about the rise of diabetes and the risk factors associated with the disease. Although there are many factors involved in the care and management of diabetes, one vital component is lifestyle and diet. The goal of this challenge is to increase daily water intake, or replace your daily liquid intake made up of sugary, high calorie and high caffeine beverages, with water. The Canadian Diabetes Association provides resources for those interested in learning more about the importance of maintaining a healthy lifestyle, which includes diet. Many people’s daily liquid intake is made up of high calorie and sugary beverages such as juice, pop, energy drinks, coffee, lattes, etc. Brock University’s Health Management department is challenging individuals to switch out those sugary beverages for water during this three-week challenge. In addition to the numerous benefits that hydrating with water provides for our bodies, increasing your daily water intake also helps you live a healthier lifestyle by decreasing the intake of those sugary beverages. Sugary beverages cause your blood-sugar level to rise, which over time has proven to have adverse health effects. The goal is to drink eight 8-oz glasses of water per day. Health Management will provide the first 200 registrants with a water bottle from Wellness Day 2015. Prior to the launch of the challenge, those registered will receive an email with an attachment to the Water You Drinking? Challenge Tracking Form. Staff and faculty are asked to register on Focus on Learning. Health Management will draw two prizes for campus store gift cards at the end of the challenge, one for those who met the goal of consuming eight glasses of water daily throughout the challenge and a second draw including all participants of the challenge.For more information about diabetes click here.
The most recent addition to Epiroc’s Minetruck series has been engineered for smart and efficient haulage. The rugged Minetruck MT54 is a powerhouse just like the larger Minetruck MT65. The more compact Minetruck MT54 is designed for 54 t load capacity and higher ramp speeds than its predecessor Minetruck MT5020.“Minetruck MT54 is based on the very successful Minetruck MT65, so experience and reliability are built-in from the beginning.” says Marcus Lundbergh, Global Product Manager Haulage Trucks at Epiroc.Minetruck MT54 also features Epiroc’s proprietary Rig Control System (RCS), it is ready for automation and can be equipped with Certiq for added intelligence. The optional telematics system solution gathers and compiles data to help optimise operations and plan maintenance. “With its built-in smartness, this haulage truck is prepared for the future,” affirms Lundbergh.
Wednesday night was perfect time for the favorites at DKB Bundesliga. Rhein Neckar Lowen scored 44 goals in away match against Emsdetten, while Flensburg beat Bergischer with +19 with fantastic defense which received only 15 goals. THW Kie had easy job against Goppingen, while the most intestering clashes have been seen in Eisenach and Lemgo…RESULTS:ThSV Eisenach 27:28 (14:11) HSG Wetzlar 6.MT Melsungen32:22+25 Rhein Neckar LowenTHW Kiel 12.FRISCH AUF! Göppingen21:35-15 18.TV Emsdetten7:49-177 TBV Lemgo 29:27 (19:13) TSV Hannover-BurgdorfSTANDINGS: SG Flensburg-H. 34:15 (17:8) Bergischer HC 11.HSG Wetzlar23:29-20 16.HBW Balingen-Weilstetten14:40-71 10.TBV Lemgo25:31-30 1.THW Kiel49:7+164 15.Bergischer HC17:39-76 4.HSV Handball42:10+82 THW Kiel 31:20 (17:8) Frisch Auf Göppingen ← Previous Story Norway qualifies for Women’s EHF EURO 2014! Next Story → DANISH FEMALE BEST 7: Mette Gravholt the No.1 3.SG Flensburg-Handewitt46:10+154 17.ThSV Eisenach11:43-130 8.TuS N-Lübbecke27:27-28 5.Füchse Berlin38:16+79 14.VfL Gummersbach18:34-64 13.TSV GWD Minden18:34-52 2.Rhein-Neckar Löwen47:9+181 9.TSV Hannover-Burgdorf26:30-47 TV Emsdetten 32:44 (12:19) Rhein-Neckar Löwen 7.SC Magdeburg29:25+25
Japon : l’éruption du Mont Shinmoedake menace les habitationsEntré en éruption mercredi dernier, le volcan Shinmoedake crache des cendres et des roches. Son activité est telle qu’un millier de personnes ont dû quitter leurs habitations dans le sud-ouest du Japon.Cela fait 300 ans que le Mont Shinmoedake n’avait pas été aussi actif. Situé sur l’île japonaise de Kyushu entre Kagoshima et Miyazaki, son activité a recouvert de cendres les cultures maraîchères des environs et perturbe le trafic aérien, rapporte le NouvelObs.com. À lire aussiLe Kilimandjaro, un volcan dormant caché dans la plus haute montagne d’AfriqueEnviron 600 résidents de la localité de Takaharu, qui se situe au pied de la montagne de 1.421 mètres, ont accepté de laisser leurs maisons dimanche pour rejoindre des gymnases et autres centres. Le volcan continuait hier de cracher une épaisse colonne de fumée et de cendres à plusieurs milliers de mètres dans le ciel.Dans un communiqué, l’Agence météorologique japonaise a précisé que le Shinmoedake appartenait à la chaîne Kirishima, constituée d’une vingtaine de volcans, et qu’une éruption mineure s’était déjà produite en 2008.Découvrez cette éruption spectaculaire en images sur Maxisciences.Le 1 février 2011 à 10:38 • Emmanuel Perrin
RitzCarlton sets up signs for 12-storey on Grace Bay Facebook Twitter Google+LinkedInPinterestWhatsApp Facebook Twitter Google+LinkedInPinterestWhatsAppProvidenciales, 22 Dec 2014 – Plans for Maskanoo announced on Friday; the event will take place in the traditional spot along the Grace Bay Strip beginning at 3pm. There are some new features including two performances from the Filipino Community, a new sound coming from the Haitian Community and a more secure parade. Culture Director David Bowen said security will be beefed up for the Boxing Day festivity which is now in its 4th year and which has become one of the year’s biggest attractions. Also new for 2014, a fun, run walk from the Graceway Gourmet with a registration fee of $20. Recommended for you Local Atty says Govt going against public consultation; says NO to taller resort plan Related Items:boxing day, david bowen, filipino community, grace bay, haitian community, maskanoo Public Holiday today; School in on Monday
Electric Cars Auto Tech Tesla’s Model X gets artsy More From Roadshow 30 Photos 2 Tesla Enlarge ImageA bug from a Tesla software update is preventing owners of Performance-spec cars from accessing their vehicle’s full power. Tim Stevens/Roadshow So there you are, at the stoplight in your Model S P100D next to a big, loud Hellcat. The driver of the Hellcat is revving that big, supercharged engine to intimidate you, but you know better. You engage Ludicrous Mode and wait for the light to go green. It does, and the next thing you see is a pair of Challenger taillights. Now your kid is crying and you’re embarrassed. What happened?Well, one of two things happened. Either you have a terrible reaction time or your glorious Tesla Performance model has a software bug. The odds are good, according to a report by Electrek Thursday, that it’s the latter.See, Tesla pushed an over-the-air software update to its vehicles earlier this year that Tesla says unintentionally removed some of the features that allow access to your car’s full power mode, according to Electrek. Interestingly, this isn’t the first time that Tesla has limited power on its vehicles.A few years ago, Tesla pushed an update that locked owners out of Ludicrous Mode and launch control if they used it too much. Those restrictions were initially meant to be permanent, but in 2017 it relented and turned them back on, opting to monitor component conditions remotely instead.Electrek received reports from P85D and P90D customers who bought the Ludicrous Mode upgrade, and after a March software update no longer have access to launch control or max battery power mode, both of which are necessary to engage Ludicrous Mode.”These settings were inadvertently removed from some vehicles during a UI update, and we are in the process of restoring the functionality,” said a Tesla representative in a statement. “This change was in no way meant to limit the performance of any vehicles, and we’re sorry for any inconvenience to affected customers.” Share your voice 2019 Dodge Durango SRT review: Three-row muscle car Tesla Tags Comments 2018 Jeep Grand Cherokee Trackhawk: Everything is better with 707 horsepower 2018 Dodge Challenger SRT Demon: Holy hell
Koene (Artificial General Intelligence and Neuroscience at AGI 2011) For Koene, substrate independence is about successful long-term evolution rather than the actual technological mind uploading process of achieving that independence. “If you look forward billions of years toward the end perspective,” Koene told PhysOrg, “what will take up the majority of intelligent spacetime? Since there’s always going to be the competitive natural selection of universal Darwinism, the entities that survive are those that are the most able to understand, adapt to and address new challenges in their surroundings. If you’re dependent on a particular substrate, you can’t be that flexible.” To Koene, then, ultimate adaptability is substrate independence as pattern rather than genetic propagation – a concept he explicated in Pattern Survival versus Gene Survival.In the near term, Koene points out, the focus is on the whole brain emulation approach to creating substrate-independent minds because “it’s the one approach that is so conservative, we can work on it today. It’s the process of emulating processes as they operate in the brain right now rather than creating something more abstract. In this case you don’t want to do the latter because we don’t have a clear understanding of how the brain works on a cognitive level: We wouldn’t know what to capture where – that is, what’s important to keep in order to create a substrate-independent version of yourself that retains what you personally consider essential about you.” Since Koene sees the mind as emerging from the brain, his approach to whole brain emulation therefore looks to neuroanatomy and neurophysiology as the determinants of how and what we think.Alexander Wissner-Gross offered his own implementation-centric view of mind uploading, telling PhysOrg that this will be accomplished using a non-invasive technique – i.e., not a Hans Moravec-type procedure, which appears rather barbaric despite its technological sophistication: A robot surgeon is equipped with a manipulator which subdivides into ever-finer branches that terminate in billions of nanometer-scale sensitive probes equipped with electrochemical sensors that translate single-neuron activity into a functional simulation. Once so virtually replicated, a neuron is removed, with the process continuing until the brain has been, in a sense, consumed.“I’m not sure how long it will take,” adds Wissner-Gross, “but, again, I’m optimistic. A non-invasive mind uploading technology might look something like fMRI capture of brain states with a veneer of machine learning.” Wissner-Gross also waxes enthusiastic about optogenetics, a groundbreaking photonics-based technique developed by Ed Boyden in the Synthetic Neurobiology Group at MIT for reading from, and writing to, single neurons. Other recent research is also suggestive: Neuroanatomy and neurophysiology are inherently three-dimensional domains. Neuronal cell body projections – axons and dendrites – can interconnect large numbers of neurons distributed over large cortical distances. Since the brain processes sensory, somatic, conceptual, and other classes of information in this 3D structural space, the need to (1) image neural structures and (2) stimulate and record neural signals are essential to understanding the relationship between brain structure and function. While 3D imaging and 3D photostimulation using scanning or parallel excitation methods have been used, they have not previously been combined into an optical system that can successfully decouple the corresponding optical planes when using a single lens – a shortcoming that has limited investigators to small neural areas. Recently, however, scientists at Université Paris Descartes have combined digital single photon holographic stimulation with remote-focusing-based epifluorescent functional imaging to overcome these limitations.Working at the intersection of physics and biology, Francesca Anselmi and Cathie Ventalon in the Emiliani Wavefront-Engineering Microscopy Group led by Dr. Valentina Emiliani, along with Aurélien Bègue and David Ogden, have demonstrated simultaneous high-resolution single-neuron 3D neural imaging and photostimulation by integrating digital single photon holographic stimulation with scanless remote-focusing-based epifluorescent functional imaging.Asked about the role of quantum processes in consciousness – specifically, as extrapolated from Coherently wired light-harvesting in photosynthetic marine algae at ambient temperature, research conducted at University of Toronto by Elisabetta Collini and others – Wissner-Gross adds that while this and related channelrhodopsin research disproves the argument that quantum events don’t occur at room temperature, he cautions that it still is the case that capturing quantum states may not be necessary for mind uploading.Not necessarily so for Eliezer Yudkowsky, an AI theorist focused on ensuring that the Singularity gives rise to what he terms a friendly AI (as witnessed by his talk, Open Problems in Friendly Artificial Intelligence). Speaking with PhysOrg, Yudkowsky succinctly proclaimed, “It’s all quarks.” Christof Koch on “The Neurobiology and Mathematics of Consciousness” at Singularity Summit 2011 For Koch, whose research has focused on the physical basis of consciousness for well over a decade, consciousness is a fundamental property of networked entities that may well be explained by psychiatrist Giulio Tononi’s integrated information theory (IIT) – an approach hypothesizing that consciousness is measure in that it corresponds to the capacity of a system to integrate information. Koch also sees IIT as a blueprint for building sentient machines. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Eliezer Yudkowsky on “Open Problems in Friendly Artificial Intelligence” at Singularity Summit 2011 Intimately related to human-like AI is an ability to recognize, understand and act upon complex visual images, motion and sensory flow fields. Stealth startup Vicarious Systems co-founders Scott Brown and Dileep George – the latter previously CTO of Numenta (which pioneered the neocortical-like technology Hierarchical Temporal Memory, or HTM, a theory first described by Numenta co-founder Jeff Hawkins in On Intelligence) and before that Research Fellow at the Redwood Neuroscience Institute – gave a seductively sparse talk. From Planes to Brains: Building AI the Wright Way described their neurobiological approach to artificial vision software that at first will understand the contents of images and videos the way humans do, eventually expanding to all sensory systems by building what might be called a sensory mode-agnostic model – that is, by capturing neocortical invariants common across vision, hearing, olfaction, taste and touch – that mirrors human learning and thought. While the Vicarious system wasn’t demonstrated, details will be revealed…soon. While the Singularity is not to be confused with the astronomical description of an infinitesimal object of infinite density, it can be seen as a technological event horizon at which present models of the future may break down in the not-too-distant future when the accelerating rate of scientific discovery and technological innovation approaches a real-time asymptote. Beyond lies a future (be it utopian or dystopian) in which a key question emerges: Evolving at dramatically slower biological time scales, must Homo sapiens become Homo syntheticus in order to retain our position as the self-acclaimed crown of creation – or will that title be usurped by sentient Artificial Intelligence? The Singularity and all of its implications were recently addressed at Singularity Summit 2011 in New York City.Part 1: The future cometh: Science, technology and humanity at Singularity Summit 2011 (Part I)In an ambitious talk (and accompanied by his engaging dry wit), neuroscientist Christof Koch – Professor of Biology and Engineering at the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena and the Chief Scientific Officer of the Allen Institute for Brain Science in Seattle – discussed The Neurobiology and Mathematics of Consciousness – a thorny problem at the forefront of cognitive neuroscience. The challenge is derived from the quixotic nature of consciousness as an instance of qualia: introspectively accessible, phenomenal aspects of our mental lives we experience as real, but which nonetheless elude definition and neurobiological localization. Koch rejects a number of popular concepts of consciousness, including the views that consciousness emerges from the brain or is inherent in complexity. “It is not the nature of the stuff that the brain is made out of that matters for mind, it is rather the organization of that stuff—the way the parts of the system are hooked up, their causal interactions,” he writes in his latest book, Consciousness – Confessions of a Romantic Reductionist, scheduled to be published by MIT Press in early 2012. “A fancier way of stating this is consciousness is substrate-independent.”Speaking of substrate independence, it should be noted that some of the Singularity’s most noteworthy thinkers, researchers and futurists did not present at Singularity Summit 2011. Among them is Randal Koene, neuroscientist, neuroengineer leading the effort in advancing substrate-independent minds (ASIM) – that is, advancing the field of substrate-independent mind (SIM) research, which is focused on transferring mind functions from the biological substrate to another substrate on which those functions can be replicated. (The process of moving our mind from our biological brain to a SIM is referred to as mind uploading, while whole brain emulation is a specific SIM implementation.) In fact, Koene – Co-Founder of carboncopies, Founder of MindUploading, Director of Neural Engineering Corporation, and Director of Analysis at Halcyon Molecular – is a member of the Oxford working group that convened in 2007 to create a first roadmap toward whole brain emulation, a topic he addressed at Singularity Summit 2009. He also discussed Artificial General Intelligence and Neuroscience at AGI 2011.Randal Koene at Singularity Summit 2009 — The Time is Now: As a Species and as Individuals we Need Whole Brain Emulation The future cometh: Science, technology and humanity at Singularity Summit 2011 (Part I) (PhysOrg.com) — In its essence, technology can be seen as our perpetually evolving attempt to extend our sensorimotor cortex into physical reality: From the earliest spears and boomerangs augmenting our arms, horses and carts our legs, and fire our environment, we’re now investigating and manipulating the fabric of that reality – including the very components of life itself. Moreover, this progression has not been linear, but instead follows an iterative curve of inflection points demarcating disruptive changes in dominant societal paradigms. Suggested by mathematician Vernor Vinge in his acclaimed science fiction novel True Names (1981) and introduced explicitly in his essay The Coming Technological Singularity (1993), the term was popularized by inventor and futurist Ray Kurzweil in The Singularity is Near (2005). The two even had a Singularity Chat in 2002. Dileep George and Scott Brown on “From Planes to Brains: Building AI the Wright Way” Given the historical difficulties of instantiating human-like visual performance and comprehension in AI systems, it will be disruptive indeed if that revelation occurs far in advance of the Singularity it portends. Copyright 2011 PhysOrg.com. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed in whole or part without the express written permission of PhysOrg.com. Explore further Citation: The future cometh: Science, technology and humanity at Singularity Summit 2011 (Part II) (2011, December 2) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2011-12-future-cometh-science-technology-humanity_1.html More information: Part 1: The future cometh: Science, technology and humanity at Singularity Summit 2011 (Part I)
Explore further © 2017 Phys.org Credit: Jian Wang More information: Jian Wang et al. Tunable Surface Properties of Temperature-Responsive Polymer-Modified Liposomes Induce Faster Cellular Uptake, ACS Omega (2017). DOI: 10.1021/acsomega.6b00342AbstractDrug delivery by nanoparticle carriers has been limited by inefficient intracellular drug delivery. Temperature-responsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm)-modified liposomes can release their content following heating. In this study, we synthesized the temperature-responsive polymer poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)-co-N,N′-dimethylaminopropylacrylamide (P(NIPAAm-co-DMAPAAm)) and investigated the properties of liposomes modified with P(NIPAAm-co-DMAPAAm) for intracellular drug carriers. The copolymer displayed a thermosensitive transition at a lower critical solution temperature (LCST) that is higher than body temperature. Above the LCST, the temperature-responsive liposomes started to aggregate and release. The liposomes showed a fixed aqueous layer thickness (FALT) at the surface below the LCST, and the FALT decreased with increasing temperature. Above 37 °C, cytosolic release from the temperature-responsive liposomes was higher than that from the PEGylated liposomes, indicating intracellular uptake. Here, we showed that the tunable surface properties of the temperature-responsive polymer-modified liposomes possibly enabled their dehydration by heating, which likely induced a faster cellular uptake and release. Therefore, the liposomes could be highly applicable for improving intracellular drug-delivery carriers. Heating targeted cancer drugs increases uptake in tumour cells This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Citation: Liposomes modified with temperature-responsive polymers are tuned for cellular uptake (2017, February 10) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2017-02-liposomes-temperature-responsive-polymers-tuned-cellular.html Studies with carboxyfluorescein (CF) encased in the liposome showed that CF was released once aggregates started to form. Specifically, above 37oC 15% of CF was released in thirty minutes. Then, near the LCST, more CF was released and at 42oC 80% of CF had been released.Wang et al. then studied changes in the fixed aqueous layer thickness (FALT) on the surface of the polymer-modified liposome and compared it to PEGylated liposomes. These results showed that as the temperature increased, the aqueous layer decreased in size only in the temperature-responsive polymer-modified liposomes, but not in the PEGylated liposomes. Importantly, the aqueous layer’s thickness decreased at the LCST.The next step was to see if the temperature-responsive polymer-modified liposomes displayed good cellular uptake. Wang et al. noted that cellular uptake of the polymer-modified liposomes was much more temperature dependent than the PEGylated liposome controls. Fluorescence microscopy showed that CF-entrapped liposomes (rhodamine labeled) in RAW264.7 and HeLa cells released CF in the cells, while cells treated with free CF and liposomes without CF did exhibit the same level of fluorescence within the temperature range. At 40oC, CF fluorescence appeared throughout the cytosol verifying that the polymer-modified liposomes are temperature dependent in terms of cellular uptake and delivery.The actual mechanism of cellular uptake was analyzed using HeLa cells. The cells were incubated for one hour at 37oC with or without several types of endocytic inhibitors. The cells were then treated with temperature-responsive polymer modified liposomes at either 4oC or 40oC for 30 minutes. Cellular uptake did not occur at 4oC indicating that uptake is an energy-dependent process. Additionally, based on the results from the inhibitors, cellular uptake occurred via microtubule-dependent transport and clathrin-mediated endocytosis, although additional studies will need to be done to gain further insight into the uptake mechanism.This research makes headway in the area of drug delivery via liposomes modified with stimuli-responsive polymers. The polymers reported here respond to temperatures that are higher than body temperature but still within physiological range. They likely dehydrate at LCST, leading to good cellular uptake and controlled drug release. (Phys.org)—Drug delivery is tricky because the therapeutic compound needs to be non-toxic and deliver the correct dosage at the correct time. Some therapeutics are chemically unstable and others do not have the correct solubility profile for cellular uptake. One way that researchers have overcome some of these drawbacks is using stimuli-responsive polymers. In a research paper in ACS Omega, Jian Wang, Eri Ayano, Yoshie Maitani, and Hideko Kanazawa of Keio University in Japan report the synthesis of the temperature-responsive polymer poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)-co-N,N’-dimethylaminopropylacrylamide (P(NIPAAm-co-DMAPAAm)) and analyzed liposomes modified with this polymer. They found that their polymer undergoes dehydration at around 40oC and that temperature-responsive polymer-modified liposomes had faster cellular uptake and release compared to nonmodified liposomes.Researchers have been interested in finding ways to modify liposomes, hollow spheres comprised of phospholipid bilayers, so that they can be a more effective drug delivery system. One way is to modify the surface of liposomes with polymers that respond to certain environmental stimuli, such as temperature.A key factor in liposomes modified with temperature-dependent polymers is the temperature at which its solubility profile changes, known as the lower critical solution temperature (LCST). Below this temperature, the polymers are soluble in an aqueous solution, while above this temperature they become hydrophobic. This causes the polymer to become dehydrated and to aggregate. This behavior guides the release of a drug within a polymer-modified liposome.In this study Wang et al. synthesized the temperature-responsive polymer poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)-co-N,N-dimethylaminopropylacrylamide (P(NIPAAm-co-DMAPAAm)). NIPAAm is temperature responsive and DMAPAAm is hydrophilic. They then evaluated the LCST of this polymer by looking at the transition of PNIPAAm from a coil configuration to a globular shape after it is dehydrated using differential scanning calorimetry and transmittance curves. They found that the copolymer’s LCST was about 40oC.They then tested this polymer as a modification to the surface of a liposome, DOTAP/DOPE, and compared this to PEGylated liposomes. After optimizing for stability, they studied colloidal stability by looking at particle size in a suspension. They found that as temperature increased, the particle size remained constant until about 39oC. Above 40oC, the particle size increased started forming aggregates.
An artist’s rendition of a Haast’s eagle attacking moa. Credit: John Megahan – Ancient DNA Tells Story of Giant Eagle Evolution. PLoS Biol 3(1): e20. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0030020.g001 (Phys.org)—A small team of researchers from Flinders University, Centro de Investigaciones en Ciencias de la Tierra and the South Australian Museum has found evidence that suggests large flightless birds that once lived in Australia, Europe and North America were related to one another. In their paper published in Royal Society Open Science, the group describes using a variety of techniques to study the ancient birds and offers a theory on how birds that were unable to fly were related to other birds that could not fly such a great distance. Explore further Dromornithidae were a type of very large flightless bird (much bigger than today’s ostriches) that lived in what is now Australia approximately 50,000 years ago. Gastornithidae were similar to birds that once lived in parts of North America and Europe. The researchers with this new effort have found that the two bird types were related and that both were also related to modern fowl, rather than ratite, which include ostriches, emu and the extinct moa. The birds and their modern cousins all belong to the group known as galloanseres, which includes ducks, geese and chickens. Fossil remains of Dromornithidae suggest they did not resemble modern fowl—they could not fly, stood taller than modern humans and weighed on average 650 kilograms.Prior research has shown that ancestors of Dromornithidae first appeared approximately 50 million years ago. The researchers with this new effort used both heuristic guides and tip-dated Bayesian approaches in their analysis of the birds and their possible relatives to link them together. They noted also that both bird types evolved to gigantism while existing on a purely vegetarian diet, as do modern fowl. They suggest that they evolved from a common bird that was able to fly, which explains how they could have evolved so far apart. This theory is similar to that proposed for ratites to explain their distant evolutionary history.The researchers also concluded that vegavis, an extinct bird that once lived in what is now Antarctica was not related to modern fowl and neither was Brontornis, an extinct flightless bird that lived in what is now South America. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. More information: Trevor H. Worthy et al. The evolution of giant flightless birds and novel phylogenetic relationships for extinct fowl (Aves, Galloanseres), Royal Society Open Science (2017). DOI: 10.1098/rsos.170975AbstractThe extinct dromornithids, gastornithids and phorusrhacids are among the most spectacular birds to have ever lived, with some giants exceeding 500 kg. The affinities and evolution of these and other related extinct birds remain contentious, with previous phylogenetic analyses being affected by widespread convergence and limited taxon sampling. We address these problems using both parsimony and tip-dated Bayesian approaches on an expansive taxon set that includes all key extinct flightless and flighted (e.g. Vegavis and lithornithids) forms, an extensive array of extant fowl (Galloanseres), representative Neoaves and palaeognaths. The Paleogene volant Lithornithidae are recovered as stem palaeognaths in the Bayesian analyses. The Galloanseres comprise four clades inferred to have diverged in the Late Cretaceous on Gondwana. In addition to Anseriformes and Galliformes, we recognize a robust new clade (Gastornithiformes) for the giant flightless Dromornithidae (Australia) and Gastornithidae (Eurasia, North America). This clade exhibits parallels to ratite palaeognaths in that flight presumably was lost and giant size attained multiple times. A fourth clade is represented by the Cretaceous Vegavis (Antarctica), which was strongly excluded from Anseriformes; thus, a crucial molecular calibration point needs to be reconsidered. The presbyornithids Wilaru (Australia) and Presbyornis (Northern Hemisphere) are robustly found to be the sister group to Anatoidea (Anseranatidae + Anatidae), a relatively more basal position than hitherto recognized. South America’s largest bird, Brontornis, is not a galloansere, but a member of Neoaves related to Cariamiformes; therefore, giant Galloanseres remain unknown from this continent. Trait analyses showed that while gigantism and flightlessness evolved repeatedly in groups, diet is constrained by phylogeny: all giant Galloanseres and palaeognaths are herbivores or mainly herbivorous, and giant neoavians are zoophagous or omnivorous. Journal information: Royal Society Open Science Citation: Large ancient flightless birds from Australia, Europe and North America found to be related (2017, October 11) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2017-10-large-ancient-flightless-birds-australia.html © 2017 Phys.org Fossils from ancient extinct giant flightless goose suggests it was a fighter